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Tribal african women leaking breastmilk

Breast-feeding practice has an important medical and socio-cultural role. Breast-feeding has been given much attention by religions and taboos, folklore, and misconception abound around it making it a topic of genuine curiosity. This paper aims at expanding the spectrum of folklore associated with breast-feeding. The paper deals with historical, religious, and folkloristic aspects of breast-feeding, especially wet-nursing, in Islam and focuses on an intriguing Islamic tale on breast-feeding - lactation by non-pregnant women or non-puerperal lactation. Apparently, accounts of non-puerperal lactation are not restricted to Islam but have been documented in various societies and religions throughout centuries. Two medical situations - hyperprolactinemia and induced lactation, appear as possible explanations for this phenomenon. This serves as an excellent example for the value of utilizing contemporary scientific knowledge in order to elucidate the origin, anthropology and evolvement of ancient myth and superstition. Western societies are preoccupied with the sexual-esthetic function of the female breast. However, its true wonder lies in the power to lactate, the maternal attribute that has enabled mammals to survive over millenia. Breast-feeding practices have an important medical and socio-cultural role.
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My grandmother's gentle wisdom:

Looking for the Perfect Lingerie Guide? Click here! If you've followed this blog for awhile, and especially if you read our post on bras and sagging breasts from earlier this year, some of the stuff I'm about to say in this piece will probably sound a bit familiar to you. As the title made all too clear, today we're talking about the lingerie world's obsession with pointing to photos of "tribal African women" as proof that bras "work" that is, prevent breast sagging. The reason I felt compelled to revisit this topic right now is because I've seen a massiv e uptick in various lingerie sites bra bloggers, bra forums, and bra sellers claiming that bras are some kind of preventative measure or even a cure for ptosis , the medical term for breast sagging. While the distribution of misinformation is an issue in of itself, what's even worse is how quickly people turn into amateur ethnographers and field biologists when asked about the evidence for that belief. Pointing to their dusty copies of National Geographic, I've seen far too many people insist, "See! These tribal African women having sagging breasts and they don't wear bras, therefore bras must keep your breasts from sagging. This post has been brewing for awhile the way these kinds of articles usually do , and this topic is rich enough and complex enough that it's hard to pull apart everything that goes into it. At the surface, this probably seems like an innocent enough statement to some.
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Then from the age of fifteen I lived in the UK. However, I always knew that I wanted to raise my children whenever I had them at home in Kenya. And yes, I assumed I was going to have them. I am a modern African woman with two university degrees and I am a fourth generation working woman - but when it comes to children, I am typically African. The assumption remains that you are not complete without them; children are a blessing it would be crazy to avoid. Actually the question does not even arise. I started my pregnancy in the UK. My grandmother later commented that babies don't read books - and really all I needed to do was "read" my baby. Everything I read said that African babies cried less than European babies. I was intrigued as to why.
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Looking for the Perfect Lingerie Guide? Click here! If you've followed this blog for awhile, and especially if you read our post on bras and sagging breasts from earlier this year, some of the stuff I'm about to say in this piece will probably sound a bit familiar to you. As the title made all too clear, today we're talking about the lingerie world's obsession with pointing to photos of "tribal African women" as proof that bras "work" that is, prevent breast sagging.

The reason I felt compelled to revisit this topic right now is because I've seen a massiv e uptick in various lingerie sites bra bloggers, bra forums, and bra sellers claiming that bras are some kind of preventative measure or even a cure for ptosis , the medical term for breast sagging. While the distribution of misinformation is an issue in of itself, what's even worse is how quickly people turn into amateur ethnographers and field biologists when asked about the evidence for that belief.

Pointing to their dusty copies of National Geographic, I've seen far too many people insist, "See! These tribal African women having sagging breasts and they don't wear bras, therefore bras must keep your breasts from sagging.

This post has been brewing for awhile the way these kinds of articles usually do , and this topic is rich enough and complex enough that it's hard to pull apart everything that goes into it. At the surface, this probably seems like an innocent enough statement to some. What's the harm? However, there are three main reasons for why this "tribal African women" trope is a problem.

One, it uplifts and normalizes one standard of beauty, while simultaneously denigrating and putting down another. Two, it completely ignores the body of scientific research on the causes of sagging breasts, replacing hard evidence with pseudoscience. Three, it's part of a very long, very racist tradition of objectifying and othering the bodies and cultures of non-white ethnic groups in order to reinforce cultural norms and sell products. This is an exceptionally long article, and I'm going to talk about a lot of major issues here, so let's get started.

There is nothing inherently superior or better about it. It is simply what's in fashion now, for our particular culture, at this specific time. While beauty standards do have some intrinsic qualities or commonalities across time and geography specifically youth, symmetry, blemish-free skin, and proportionality the details of beauty can vary wildly between cultures and ethnic groups.

Body type, body shape, body weight When it comes to breasts, the Western ideal is a perky, uplifted breast shape. But would it be so unusual to imagine a culture where a softer, languorous shape is preferable? Especially since that shape, as I'll discuss later, is often associated with other desirable outcomes, like childbearing and reaching a more mature age? Don't get me wrong Like what you like; it's not really relevant to this conversation. However, one's preferences are not applicable to the entire world.

If another culture's standard of beauty doesn't encompass the Western ideal, that's fine. It shouldn't be used as fuel for the insult of, "Either do things our way or you might look like them! Forget what you've heard. There is no published research which indicates that wearing a bra prevents breast sag.

As the saying goes, the plural of anecdote is not data, and there is no objective evidence whatsoever to support the notion that wearing a bra delays, arrests, or otherwise affects the inevitable natural process of ptosis. As Catherine Clavering pointed out in her article for TLA about bra fit research and sampling methods , science is not about sticking to your arguments no matter what.

It's about testing your ideas, and accepting or rejecting those ideas based on the evidence. And part of testing those ideas means including attempts to disprove your hypothesis. And if they get stretched out, won't the breast sag? Furthermore, there's no data which indicates that supporting the Cooper's Ligaments yourself as in, with a bra will delay or forego the sagging process. However, there are a couple of small very small studies which seem to indicate going braless may actually result in more uplift over time , with the hypothesis being that wearing a bra may weaken your Cooper's Ligaments ligaments and cause them to atrophy.

The general takeaway here? There's just not enough research available to make sweeping statement like wearing a bra affects your Cooper's Ligaments and helps to keep your breasts aloft.

So what does cause sagging breasts? Well, the body of scientific evidence references: here , here , here , and here indicate that pregnancy, age, significant weight loss, a high BMI, and smoking are all associated with ptotic breasts.

Hereditary factors like skin elasticity, breast size before pregnancy, and breast density the ratio of fat to glandular tissue also influence sagging. As a quick aside, the research also indicates that breastfeeding actually has no effect on sagging; it's the breast changes that happen during pregnancy which are the key factor here. It's simply one of the many, many changes that happen to a woman's body as part of the aging process Now let's bring that entire body of research back to the original point of this post, namely why using "tribal African women" as proof that bras prevent breast sagging is so wrong.

First of all, there's some confirmation bias going on here. Confirmation bias is a selective interpretation of the evidence or data, and in this case, confirmation bias means disregarding all the women you know who've worn bras their entire lives and yet still have sagging breasts. It also means simultaneously ignoring any woman who doesn't wear a bra, and yet still has uplifted breasts this could also be called a disconfirmation bias, wherein people require more evidence for hypotheses that go against their current expectations.

Here, confirmation bias also results in the repetition of discredited beliefs, even though there is no scientific evidence to back them up. People are simply paying attention to the examples which support their case and disregarding those which do not.

Women there don't. It's a bit like noticing that everyone who ate a carrot in was dead by the year Yes, those two things are very highly correlated everyone who ate carrots in was dead by the year , but it doesn't mean those two variables have anything at all to do with each other. In the case of sagging breasts, there are a number mediating factors at play here mediating means to come between those two other variables like pregnancy, or, in the case of my deliberately hyperbolic example, age.

The women we see in these photos may have already had multiple pregnancies, which has a strong causative relationship on breast sag. In addition, genetic factors, like skin elasticity as mentioned above, may also play a role. Finally, if we're looking at women from a particular tribal or ethnic group, these women likely to be more closely genetically related to each other than to, say, Western women. If you're trying to isolate a relationship between the variables of bras and sagging breasts, then you need to control for all those other factors that we know cause ptosis.

You cannot simply decide, sans evidence, that bras are the significant variable when there are so many other factors affecting the final outcome. And you can't do that kind of research from a few photos in National Geographic.

Comparing and contrasting photos of "tribal African women" to Western women as "proof" that bras prevent sagging breasts is roughly equivalent to using a photo of a black person and a white person as "proof" that your soap gets skin clean. Such an ad, aside from being outrageously offensive, would also be obviously inaccurate since we know it's genetics, not cleanliness, that makes brown skin brown.

The same logic applies to bras and breasts. This is very often where bra experts jump in and say they've seen the breasts of dozens of women and therefore that's all the proof they need that bras prevent sagging. But again, there's some bias going on here The people coming into your shop or visiting your bra fit forum or commenting on your lingerie blog are not a representative sample of anyone.

They are a small, self-selected, highly atypical group of volunteers, and the observations made about this group cannot be used to make predictions about everyone else. Nor should these observations be treated like science.

In the same way that it would be ridiculous to make generalizations about the population of America based on who happens to drive down your street on any given day, so too is it absurd to make generalizations about women's breasts from all over the world based on the few women who come into your shop, visit your blog, or comment on your forum. People who visit your shop are only representative of the group named "people who visit your shop.

Finally and this is the really meat and potatoes of this post so if you need to get some water and come on back, please do, invoking the image of African women "as a lesson" to Western women has a long, ugly history in racism, slavery, and colonialism.

There is terrible, terrible tradition in Western cultures of making the bodies of indigenous peoples open to criticism, commentary, and co-optation, and of using their bodies as an example of what not to look like. The same mindset that makes it okay to use a photo of a "tribal African woman" to make a point about bras, is the same mindset that makes it okay to use a photo of a black woman's natural hair as an example of how not to look and that allows the skin-lightening cream industry to thrive.

That contrast - of the naked with the clothed, the savage with the refined, the dark with the light, the superior with the inferior is part of a horrid and horrifying legacy that reinforced a Eurocentric standard of beauty upon the skin, hair, lips, noses, breasts, and buttocks of black women.

Pointing to the breasts of "tribal African women" as evidence of your bra-wearing rightness because let's face it, there are other places to get photos of bare breasts than National Geographic is the 21st century equivalent of gawping at Sarah Bartmann's labia. There is something very exploitative about not only co-opting and subverting the photos of these women, but also of essentializing them Their bosoms become a prop or a tool to aid in commerce: the selling of bras.

That is the definition of objectification , and if you are a breast expert or bra expert or even someone who claims to want to help women, objectifying non-Western women should never be a part of that. Their bodies are not a cautionary tale for what happens if you go braless. And all this would be true even if the research said bras will keep your breasts from sagging.

Listen, if wearing a bra makes you feel better for whatever reason more support, less pain, preferred shape, fashion and style, whatever , that's great. People should wear bras if they want to wear them for whatever reason they want to wear them. There's nothing wrong or bad about wanting support or shaping or what have you. But there's no need to resort to tired tropes, body myths, urban legends, and racist stereotypes to explain your preference.

Just say you like them Last Updated on July 10, I believe lingerie is fashion too, and that everyone who wants it deserves gorgeous lingerie. I found this page whilst googling to find out why many women in the Himba tribe in Namibia have such pert breasts.

The old women do sag. But some of the girls were perky in a way I never was. So not all bra less tribeswomen sag…. They rub their skin with a mixture of lard and red ochre every day instead of washing.

Lard is good for the skin, might make it stronger, firmer. Clay ochre May also help tighten the skin around the breasts, hold them in place? I am a little disappointed. Is it because of the different beauty standards and therefore, evolution picks the longer, bigger, heavier breasts?

Is it because of some elongating techniques? Some tying down? Is it because of the younger ages of pregnancies?



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