Sugar increased during pregnancy – as a serious problem?
Pregnancy – is a wonderful event, completely change the life of every woman. Adjusting to the beat of a small heart, the mother tries to do everything to make your child feel comfortable during all nine months. Unfortunately, for many weeks, forty expectant mother has to experience not only the joy of emergency meetings with the baby, but also a lot of unpleasant sensations that accompany pregnancy. Some of the inevitable companions of pregnancy do not carry any hazard to the fetus, while others require constant medical supervision. One of the most serious complications in the waiting period is a child gestational diabetes – a condition in which increased levels of glucose in the peripheral blood.
What does the rise in blood sugar during pregnancy?
At the first summons to the antenatal clinic expectant mother receives from the direction of the doctor for tests to assess the general condition of the pregnant woman. One of the most important figures in this huge list is the determination of glucose in the b
Increase in the concentration of glucose in the blood is not as harmless as it may seem at first glance. Changes in blood sugar triggers a whole range of pathological mechanisms that lead to a significant deterioration of the pregnant woman. The processes occurring in the body of the future mother will inevitably impact on the development of the fetus, increasing the risk of having a child with signs of diabetic fetopathy.
How do you know that sugar is elevated in pregnancy?
Blood test to detect glucose woman delivers twice the turnout at the first antenatal care and at time of 22-24 weeks. This expectant mother should not limit yourself to food or something to change eating habits for three days prior to the scheduled examination. Blood is drawn from a vein in the morning on an empty stomach. Exceeding the permissible values in most cases indicates the development of gestational diabetes.
Why rising glucose levels?
Under normal circumstances, the sugar content is regulated by the hormone insulin, which is continuously produced by the pancreas. Under his influence the glucose that came along with the food, is gradually transformed into the cells of the body, performing its function there. Blood sugar level is lowered. What happens during pregnancy and why this streamlined mechanism fails?
Hormones that allow bear a child, are antagonists of insulin. Elevated blood sugar during pregnancy is linked to the fact that the pancreas simply can not cope with their work in such conditions. Pregnancy hormones activate the output of glucose in the blood, and insulin is able to bind excess sugar, not enough. As a result of developing the so-called gestational diabetes, dangerous for its unpredictable consequences.
It would seem that in this situation, any woman in an interesting position to suffer from an excess of glucose in the body. However, the increased sugar during pregnancy is not every expectant mother. What increases the risk of disease?
• heredity (diabetes in close relatives);
• the development of a similar situation in a previous pregnancy;
• polycystic ovary syndrome;
• age over 25 years.
Symptoms of gestational diabetes
In many cases, a pregnant woman does not even know that she had elevated levels of glucose in the blood. It did not feel me baby actively moves and makes itself felt quite active jerks. Risk of gestational diabetes is that the amount of sugar in the blood will gradually increase, leading to serious complications.
With increasing gestational glucose will rise, and insulin levels inevitably decline. Manifestation of diabetes is characterized by the following symptoms:
• constant feeling of thirst;
For accurate diagnosis alone complaints about the deterioration of health is not enough. The feeling of hunger and frequent urination are typical of many pregnant women with perfectly normal blood sugar levels. Expectant mother will have to pass a special examination, which allows to confirm or deny gestational diabetes.
In order to ascertain whether the sugar is elevated in pregnancy, a woman offered to donate blood the determination of glucose. The analysis shall fasting.
Interpretation of results:
• from 3.3 to 5.5 mmol / l – the norm;
• 5.5 to 7 mmol / L – impaired glucose tolerance;
• more than 7.1 momol / L – diabetes.
When glucose levels over 7.1 mmol / l of the expectant mother is sent for consultation to the endocrinologist to confirm the diagnosis and to develop treatment strategies.
Increased sugar in the urine during pregnancy also talks about the development of gestational diabetes. The most common glucose detected in the later stages, when the disease has gone too far. Sugar in the urine indicates that the kidneys are no longer cope with its function, and hence increases the risk of complications of all organs and systems of the female body.
How dangerous is gestational diabetes?
Many pregnant women do not seek professional help, hoping that postpartum glucose level will decrease by itself. They do not realize what is really dangerous pinch of sugar during pregnancy. The effects of gestational diabetes can be very sad. Women with high blood sugar increases the risk of joining preeclampsia (a condition characterized by swelling and high blood pressure in late pregnancy).In addition, it increases the likelihood of complications from kidney and urinary system. Do not forget that birth in women with diabetes often occur early.
How does diabetes affect the fetus?
Increased level of sugar in the blood of the mother affects the baby’s condition. The complex of symptoms that develop when a pregnancy is called diabetic fetopathy. When a child is born of this pathology is very large, more than 4.5 kg. But a lot of weight does not mean that the baby will be healthy. In contrast, for diabetic fetopathy characterized by stunted physical development. Due to lack of surfactant (a substance makes it easy to open at birth) in the newborn observed various respiratory disorders. Very often develop pathological jaundice, and a variety of neurological disorders.
Treatment of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
Most expectant mothers are afraid to find an increased sugar during pregnancy. What to do if you happen to such trouble? First of all, a woman should consult a specialist. The endocrinologist will evaluate the future mother and, depending on the severity of the disease prescribe the necessary treatment.
In most cases, the tactics of pregnant women with diabetes is reduced to a change in diet. Normalizing insulin levels in the blood allows you to dispense with heavy artillery in the form of hormones. At elevated sugar diet during pregnancy involves the following principles: •
Daily ration is divided between proteins, carbohydrates and fats in a ratio of 20-25%, 35-40% and 35% respectively.
• During the whole period of pregnancy there is a gradual decrease in caloric intake to 25-30 kcal per 1 kg of body weight.
• From daily use excludes any carbohydrate (especially sweets).
New Health Advisor
Blood glucose, or blood sugar, is a very important source of energy for our bodies. It provides nutrients to the body’s organs, muscles and the nervous system. Glucose arrives in the body from the food you eat every day, with the absorption of glucose regulated by the small intestine, pancreas and liver.
Blood Sugar Normal Range
The normal range of blood sugar varies depending on the different laboratories that conduct tests. There are many factors playing a role in an individual’s blood sugar levels. And the normal levels may be slightly different in different occasions.
1. Normal Fasting Blood Sugar
An individual’s fasting blood sugar is measured when they first wake up in the morning. The idea is to get an estimation before any food is consumed. If your blood sugar levels are Between 70 mg/dl (3.9 mmol/L) and 92 mg/dl (5.0 mmol/L) then you are at a normal fasting blood sugar level. A majority of research indicates that anyone with blood sugar levels in this range is not at risk of developing diabetes for at least another decade or two. If the blood sugar level is going above 92 mg/dl, the risk of diabetes begins to increase rapidly. Some doctors even consider blood sugar levels below 100 mg/dl (5.6 mmol/L) as normal.
2. Post-Meal or Postprandial Blood Sugar
This measures the blood sugar levels an hour or two after a meal is consumed. No matter what a person eats for his or her meal, the blood sugar level Should not go above 120 mg/dl (6.6 mmol/L). For a majority of people, this level will not rise above 100 mg/dl after meals.
Individuals with diabetes are at greater risk when their blood sugar levels increase. For these people, keeping blood sugar between 4 to 7 mmol/L is vital before meals. For an after-meal level, blood sugar should not go above 9 mmol/L if you have type I diabetes, or above 8.5 if you have type II diabetes.
3. Normal Blood Sugars During Pregnancy
The blood sugar normal range during pregnancy is lower than other people, due to the dilution of blood sugar resulting from higher blood volume in pregnant women. A majority of research shows that the blood sugar range for A normal pregnant woman is
- Between 70 to 79 mg/dl at fasting;
- Between 109 and 132 mg/dl an hour after meals;
- And between 99 to 110 mg/dl two hours after a meal.
If you are Pregnant but also have diabetes, make sure your blood sugar levels at Fasting are 79 mg/dl or lower, with the One hour and two hour after-meals level at 122 mg/dl and 110 mg/dl respectively.
Abnormalities in Blood Sugar Levels
With the blood sugar normal range discussed above, it is time to look at the types of abnormalities people experience in their blood sugar levels.
Low Blood Sugar
Low blood sugar occurs when the blood glucose levels in the body drop to below 70 mg/dl (3.9 mmol/L). There are risks associated with lower blood sugar levels, such as the potentially fatal hypoglycemia. If you are worried about low blood sugar, keep an eye out for symptoms such as lethargic feelings, impaired mental functions, constant irritability, shaking, twitching, weakness in your arms or leg muscles, a pale complexion, excessive sweating and complete loss of consciousness.
High Blood Sugar
Similar to low blood sugar, high blood sugar involves health risks for both the short and long-term. If a person’s blood sugar levels are constantly high, it leads to appetite suppression and other issues. If this hyperglycemia is long-term, it can lead to other diseases such as heart disease, eye problems, kidney failure, nerve damage and more. Consistent high blood sugar most often leads to diabetes.
How to Tell If Someone Has Diabetes
Diabetes is a very serious illness that has immediate and long-term health consequences. However, people are often unaware of how to diagnose diabetes in themselves or their loved ones.
Tests to Diagnose Diabetes in Someone
There are two main tests performed by doctors to test the blood glucose in the body, thereby discovering if you are suffering from pre-diabetes or diabetes. These tests are the fasting plasma glucose test (FPG) and the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT).
The FPG test is a test of your blood to understand the level of sugar in your body after you have not eaten anything for at least eight hours. If the fasting blood glucose level is at 100 to 125 mg/dl, a person is likely to have pre-diabetes. If the level is 126 mg/dl or above, they already suffer from full-blown diabetes.
The OGTT involves measuring an individual’s blood sugar level by eating nothing for at least two hours and then consuming some beverage rich in glucose. If the blood sugar level is between 140 mg/dl to 199 mg/dl then they are suffering from pre-diabetes. If the level reaches 200 mg/dl or higher, they have diabetes.
As with any tests, these blood sugar tests are not 100% accurate. For that reason, if anyone measures in a range that outside the blood sugar normal range, the test is taken again at a different day to confirm the results. According to the American Diabetes Association, the FPG test is easier to perform, quicker and costs less money.
Test Your Blood Sugar at Home
If you do not have the time or money to visit a doctor to test your blood sugar, there are some home methods to check whether you are in the blood sugar normal range.
- Using Your Fingertips: Take a small but sharp needle and prick your finger. Place the resulting blood onto a test strip. This test strip is then placed on a meter that indicates blood sugar levels. These results come in less than 15 seconds, allowing you to perform multiple tests on different days to get a more accurate assessment. Meters are also available that provide you with your average blood sugar levels over an extended period of time. These meters even come with charts and graphs to indicate past results. Blood sugar meters and strips are readily available at all major pharmacy locations.
- Other Meter Tests: These tests are not exclusive to blood from the fingertip. Other parts of the body, such as your arm, forearm, thumb and thighs are sometimes used for testing. These results are sometimes different from the fingertip tests. If you want a more accurate assessment, use different meters on multiple days and take the average of the results. However, fingertip readings are said to come more quickly, and they are often more accurate for people who suffer from hypoglycemia.
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Safe blood sugar range during pregnancy
The cause of gestational diabetes (type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes) is unknown but the main reason could be to provide enough sugars to the growing baby.
High blood sugar during pregnancy is often symptom less but if you have been showing increased thirst, or frequent urination or feeling tired and dizzy, you might have developed gestational diabetes. Though these are some of the common symptoms of being pregnant that are not very specific.
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