HIV Testing In Pregnancy – Gauging Risks Of Transmission Of The HIV Virus Into The Baby
On your first prenatal visit, you’ll typically provide blood and urine samples for a variety of tests. One test that you’ll likely be asked to consent to is a test for HIV. And although this test provides some helpful information, you should never feel that you’re being coerced to take an HIV test and you should always be offered counseling whether or not you take the test and whatever the result may be.
An HIV blood test looks for the presence of antibodies to HIV, which is short for human immunodeficiency virus. If you test positive for HIV, it doesn’t mean that you have the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or that you’ll necessarily develop AIDS. If your initial screening blood test results are positive or inconclusive, additional confirmatory testing is usually performed.
There are several reasons that an HIV test can be a false positive. For example, these include having received a blood transfusion, having liver disease, having an autoimmune disease such as lupus, or having recently received an immunization against rabies, influenza, or Hepatitis B. Pregnancy can also cause a false positive result, particularly multiple pregnancies. For this reason, if you test positive for HIV during your pregnancy, you should always request an additional test for confirmation – specifically the Western Blot test, which is the most accurate test available as of this writing.
If a mother-to-be tests positive for HIV, the concern is that she may transmit the HIV infection to her unborn child. This is less likely to happen during pregnancy than it is during labor and delivery, when the baby may be exposed to the mother’s blood, or during breastfeeding, when the baby may receive the HIV virus in his mother’s breast milk. A woman considered to be at risk, who has not received previous testing can be given or request a rapid HIV test during delivery – some tests provide results in as little as 15 minute.
If a woman tests positive for an HIV infection, then the usual course of action is for her to receive HIV medications – typically, the medication azidothymidine (AZT), either alone or in a multi-drug “cocktail,” during her pregnancy, labor and delivery. In addition, she and her baby will continue to receive medication for a period of about one year after the baby is born.
Women who test positive for HIV will give birth to babies who test positive for HIV antibodies. However, this doesn’t mean that the baby has an HIV infection. It takes from 6 to 18 months to get a reliable test result when testing an infant, and overall, there’s thought to be a 25% chance that an HIV positive mother will infect her infant with the HIV virus in the absence of any treatment and during a vaginal birth. If the mother is on medication, this risk is usually reduced to about 8%, and the risk is also thought to be lower if a Cesarean section is performed before the amniotic sac ruptures. However, research has found that women who are deficient in vitamin A are more likely to pass the virus on to their babies, and that women who receive optimal amounts of vitamin A are only 7% likely to pass the virus on to their babies.
Of course, this testing procedure and subject come with quite a bit of controversy. If a mother is HIV positive, should she subject herself and her unborn child to medication which has not been proven safe for use during pregnancy and allow her newborn to receive medication that has not been FDA approved for use in newborns? Or is reducing the risk of transmitting HIV to her baby worth the risk the treatment brings with it? It is widely believed that medical research will have better answers to offer us in the future, but until then, this remains a very personal and complex dilemma, one that all parents must answer for themselves.
Positive Pregnancy Test: When And How Early After Implantation?
When is the urine hCG test positive after implantation?
A blood pregnancy test is usually positive 3-4 days after implantation and a urine pregnancy hCG test is usually positive several days later or about 4-5 days after implantation.
You want to take a pregnancy test, but you have questions: How long do I have to wait after a missed period before I take a test? How long after implantation can I test? It can be confusing.
A positive pregnancy blood test first happens about 3-4 days after implantation bleeding and about 4-5 days before a missed period. T he early urine home positive pregnancy test (HPT) can usually detect pregnancy 6-7 days after implantation. Sometimes it can be as early as 2-3 days before the missed period. Implantation usually happens about 9 days (range 6-12 days) after ovulation, fertiliziation or about 8 days before the next period.
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How early can I take a pregnancy test?
The Implantation Calculator will calculate for you the indivual dates of implantation as well as when to take the pregnancy test.
An early pregnancy test becomes positive only after the fertilized egg has arrived inside the uterus and implanted into the uterus and then sent enough amounts of hCG, human chorionic gonadotropin, the pregnancy hormone, into your blood stream and from there into the urine.
The urine pregnancy test (home pregnancy test or HPT) checks for the presence of the pregnancy hormone hCG in the urine. hCG is made by the implanting blastocyst and first appears in the maternal blood around implantation, on average 9 days (range: 6-12 days) after ovulation. Blood hCG levels then rise rapidly to reach a peak at 7-10 weeks. They decline after that time.
You can interactively and for free do our online pregnancy test to find out if you are pregnant or not HERE.
A negative HPT result 10+ days after the missed period makes a pregnancy unlikely. With the present generation of test kits, false-positive results due to interfering materials are extremely unlikely. Pregnancy tests have now reached a level of sensitivity and specificity that is unlikely to be surpassed either by better tests or alternative technology.
Positive pregnancy test results can show up any time before or after a missed period. Read below more about when the pregnancy test result first becomes positive.
The early urine ept HPT pregnancy test result is usually positive within 10-12 days after ovulation which is about 3-4 days after implantation
An early pregnancy test result checks for the presence of the pregnancy hormone hCG human chorionic gonadotropin in the urine.
HCg is detectable in the blood only after implantation. Implantation, the attachement of the fertilized egg to the uterus, happens on average 7-9 days after ovulation with a range of 6-12 days. You need to find enough hCG in the urine to get a positive pregnancy test, and with most current pregnancy test kits (sensitivity 25 milli-international units per milliliter) the pregnancy hormone hCG can be detected in the urine as early as 3-4 days after implantation (9-15 days after ovulation), though oftentimes it can take longer because the urine may be diluted or there is not enough hCG yet in the urine, or implantation happens later than extected. Our pregnancy calendar will help you calculate the due date and other important dates, and our ovulation calendar will calculate your fertile days.
Here are the expected positive positive home pregnancy tests in women who are pregnant based on a scientific study:
Expected Period (EP)
Pregnancy Test Positive?
- About one in two HPTs are expected to be positive 2-3 days before a missed period
From: Wilcox in JAMA 2001; 286:1759
Positive Blood Pregnancy test
The blood pregnancy test is usually positive within 3-4 days after implantation or about 9-10 days after fertilization and ovulation. About 5-6 days before a missed period
Positive Urine early home Pregnancy Test (HOME HPT)
The early positive urine pregnancy test will become positive about 2-3 days after the positive blood test or about the time of a missed period, and sometimes a couple of days before the missed period. About 25% of pregnant women will test positive with the early home pregnancy test about 2 days before a missed period, and about 40% the day before the missed period.
The wide variation of when the urine pregnancy test becomes positive and how early pregnancy can be detected are due to four variables which determine when the home urine pregnancy test becomes positive:
1. Timing of Implantation
A pregnancy test detects the presence of the pregnancy hormone hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) either in the blood or in the urine only after implantation. Implantation can happen as early as six days and as late as 12 days after fertilization/ovulation. At the time of implantation the placenta starts making the pregnancy hormone hCG, which then enters the blood stream. How early pregnancy can be detected depends on the pregnancy hormone hcG which can be detected in the blood about three to four days after implantation. Urine hCG can be detected about two to three days after blood hCG can first be seen. Detection of hCG depends on timing of implantation, so hCG can normally be detected in the blood between nine and 16 days after ovulation (HPT: 12-19 days after ovulation).
2. Blood hCG Level
There is a wide normal variation of hCG levels, both in the blood and the urine and this wide range changes the diagnosis of how early can pregnancy be detected. If a woman has a normal but low blood hCG levels, then it can take several more days for it to show up on a pregnancy test.
3. Urine hCG level
Urine hCG levels change over the course of the day depending on how much you drink and how diluted or concentrated the urine is. Urine pregnancy testing is best done with more concentrated urine. So how early can pregnancy be detected depends on the urine concentration and the quality of the early pregnancy test. If you drink a lot of fluid, the urine may be too diluted early on in pregnancy to achieve an hCG concentration adequate enough for a positive test.
4. Sensitivity of the Early Urine Home Pregnancy Test
Different pregnancy tests have different sensitivities and that has an impact on how early can pregnancy be detected. The lower the sensitivity, the earlier a pregnancy test becomes positive. Sensitivities are indicated in mIU/mL, the lowest amount of hCG in the urine that tests positive. A sensitivity of 20 mIU/mL requires one-half the hCG level to be positive when compared with a 40 mIU/mL sensitivity level, and it may become positive several days earlier than the pregnancy test with a higher sensitivity. Make sure you read the package of the pregnancy test to determine your pregnancy test’s sensitivity.
A positive pregnancy test occurs only after the fertilized egg has implanted into the uterus and sent enough hCG (i. e. the “pregnancy hormone”) into your blood stream. So the first positive pregnancy test does not usually happen until a couple of days prior to the next expected period. If it is truly positive then it’s highly likely that you are pregnant because false positive pregnancy tests rarely occur.
CALCULATOR: When to take the pregnancy test
After ovulation and fertilization the fertilized egg or blastocyst takes 4-5 days to travel through the Fallopian tube towards the uterus and it then usually implants inside the uterus. Implantation, when the fertilized egg the embryo implants into the endometrium, happens about 9 days after ovulation (range: 6-12 days), and it takes another 3-4 days after implantation (9-10 dpo: days after ovulation) for the blood pregnancy test to first become positive.
- Blood Pregnancy Test: If you are pregnant then the blood pregnancy test is usually positive within 3-4 days after implantation or about 9-10 days after fertilization and ovulation.
- Urine Home Pregnancy Test (HPT): The urine pregnancy test will usually not become positive in most women until a missed period or about a week after implantation. The urine test is usually positive at a missed period, but only about 25% of pregnant women will test positive with the HPT 2 days before a missed period, and about 40% the day before the missed period. On average, a pregnancy test will be positive 13-14 days after ovulation and fertilization, or about the time you expect your menstrual period.
The amount of time it takes for a pregnancy to be detected and the wide variation of time it takes for a urine pregnancy test to become positive is due to five variables:
1. Timing/Day of Ovulation : A pregnancy test depends on the day of implantation and the urine pregnancy test is usually positive 4-5 days after implantation. However, the day of ovulation is important too, as implantation can only happen if ovulation took place and the egg was fertilized. Therefore, if your day of ovulation was later than you thought, implantation and subsequently the positive pregnancy test will also be delayed. This is why it is really important to keep track of your ovulation day (OD) so you can start counting the days to implantation and eventually the positive pregnancy test.
2. Timing of Implantation: A pregnancy test detects the presence of the pregnancy hormone hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) either in the blood or in the urine. The hCG in the urine comes from the hCG in the blood after being filtered through the kidney. After ovulation, the egg gets fertilized and travels through the fallopian tube toward the uterus. This journey takes about a week on average. Implantation, the attachment of the fertilized egg to the lining of the uterus, occurs on average about a week or so after ovulation/fertilization, but it can happen as early as six days and as late as 12 days after fertilization/ovulation. At the time of implantation, the placenta starts making the pregnancy hormone hCG, which then enters the blood stream. How early a pregnancy can be detected depends on the pregnancy hormone hcG, which can be detected in the blood about three to four days after implantation. Urine hCG can be detected about two to three days after the blood hCG can first be seen. Detection of hCG depends on timing of implantation, so hCG can normally be detected in the blood between nine and 16 days after ovulation (HPT: 12-19 days after ovulation).
3. Blood hCG Level: There is a wide variation of “normal” hCG levels, both in the blood and the urine. This wide range changes the diagnosis of how early a pregnancy can be detected. If a woman has low blood hCG levels, for example, it can take several more days for it to show up on a pregnancy test. If a woman is overweight, with a high BMI, then the blood hCG levels are often lower.
4. Urine hCG Level: Urine hCG levels change over the course of the day depending on how much you drink and how diluted or concentrated the urine is. The time it takes for a pregnancy to be detected depends on the urine concentration. If you drink a lot of fluid, the urine may be too diluted early to achieve an hCG concentration adequate enough for a positive test. Urine pregnancy testing is best done with more concentrated urine.
5. Sensitivity of Urine Home Pregnancy Test: Different pregnancy tests have different sensitivities, which affects how soon a pregnancy can be detected. The lower the sensitivity, the earlier a pregnancy test becomes positive. Sensitivities are indicated in mIU/mL, the lowest amount of hCG in the urine that tests positive. A sensitivity of 20 mIU/mL requires one-half the amount of hCG to be positive as a test with a 40 mIU/mL sensitivity level; it may become positive several days earlier than the pregnancy test with a higher sensitivity. Make sure you read the package of the pregnancy test to determine your pregnancy test’s sensitivity.
Spotting and positive pregnancy test
Some bleeding early in pregnancy, maybe some drops or brown discharge, is also called ‘spotting.’ Spotting happens in 20-30% of pregnant women, usually around the time of the missed period, and most women with spotting continue and deliver a healthy baby. Implantation bleeding usually happens 5-6 days after ovulation. If your pregnancy test is positive, then implantation happened at least 4-5 days ago and it’s unlikely that the spotting represents implantation bleeding. If you have a positive HPT and you experience spotting with pain and cramping, you should contact your doctor right away. Your doctor can check the viability of your pregnancy by doing two hCG blood tests 48-72 hours apart. If the hCG levels more than double, then you have a viable pregnancy.
Positive Pregnancy Test: When and How Long After Implantation
A pregnancy test can show a positive result a few days after implantation has occurred. Most women who want to get pregnant are very keen to take a home pregnancy test (HPT) to see if the result is positive. Depending on your body and the levels of hCG hormone, early pregnancy can be detected by a pregnancy blood test as soon as 3-4 days after implantation. Usually, a urine home pregnancy test takes a few days longer to detect a pregnancy and may show a positive result as soon as 5-7 days after implantation.
Even if the home pregnancy test result is negative, it doesn’t necessarily mean that you are not pregnant. How soon an early pregnancy can be detected depends on the levels of the hormone called human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). This hormone is produced during pregnancy. Blood and urine pregnancy tests check for elevated levels of hCG which start to rise right after implantation. A positive urine home pregnancy test will undoubtedly mean that you are pregnant and should visit your doctor for hCG blood test.
Most home urine pregnancy test kits advise that you should wait until the first day of your missed period before taking the test. This is when levels of hCG will usually be high enough for the majority of pregnancy testing kits to show a positive pregnancy result if you have conceived. However, some urine pregnancy testing kits are more sensitive and may be able to show a positive result and detect early pregnancy quite soon after implantation.
If you have already waited for a few days after your missed period to take a pregnancy test, and it is still negative, chances are that you are not pregnant.
You may want to take a pregnancy test, but you probably have questions such as: How long after implantation can I test? How long do I have to wait after a missed period before I take a test? In this article, you will find out how early you can detect pregnancy using at-home pregnancy testing kits. You will also learn about the other early signs of pregnancy that can help determine if implantation has taken place.
How Long After Implantation You Need to Take a Pregnancy Test
How early you can take a pregnancy test depends on a number of factors such as the sensitivity of the home pregnancy test (HPT), levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in your body, and the regularity of your menstrual cycle.
A pregnancy test can only become positive when an egg is fertilized after ovulation. According to the American Pregnancy Association, ovulation happens about 11 to 21 days from the start of your last period. 1 At ovulation, an egg is released and lives for up to 24 hours in the fallopian tubes waiting for a sperm that lives long enough to fertilize it. Some signs of ovulation include discharge, light abdominal cramping, and some ovulation spotting.
When the fertilized egg attaches itself to the wall of your uterus, implantation occurs. As soon as implantation happens, your body produces hCG and the pregnancy hormone can be detected in a pregnancy test. At the same time, you may have other signs of implantation such as light spotting that lasts a day or two, mild cramping, tender breasts, and an increased need to pee.
The length of time after implantation you need to take a pregnancy test to check if it’s positive or not depends on the sensitivity of the pregnancy test that is carried out. The two types of pregnancy tests to check for early pregnancy are:
- Urine hCG pregnancy test kits that you use at home and show up a mark to indicate a positive pregnancy test or a negative test result.
- Pregnancy blood tests at the doctor’s office to check for hCG in blood serum in order to detect a pregnancy.
Urine hCG test – when is it positive after implantation?
Some of the most sensitive urine pregnancy test kits can detect early pregnancy in less than a week after implantation. The European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology, found that urine pregnancy testing kits will usually show a positive result 3-4 days after implantation. By 7 days (the time of the expected period) 98% of pregnancy testing kits will be positive. 13
Urine pregnancy test kits have an hCG sensitivity of 25 mlU/ml (sensitivity of 25 units per litre). The American Pregnancy Association say that a reading of more than 25 mIU/ml in urine indicates pregnancy. 2
The levels of hCG are detectable a few days after implantation. For example, a report published in a German medical journal said that sensitive pregnancy testing kits can detect hCG as early as 4 days or even 10 days before your next period is due. 3
According to Dr. Nivin Todd on WebMD, implantation occurs 3-4 days after the egg is fertilized. This may result in implantation bleeding which can be one of the earliest signs of pregnancy. Dr. Todd says that hCG levels will show up in most urine tests from as early as 7 days before you expect your next period. 4
Sometimes, urine home pregnancy tests show up “false-negative” results because not enough hCG hormone has been detected yet. This means that you could still be pregnant even though the pregnancy test shows up as negative. However, in a few days, the pregnancy test will become positive in women if implantation has taken place.
You can test for pregnancy using a urine pregnancy test as early as a week before your next period is expected. Even if the results are negative, you shouldn’t lose hope. Take another urine pregnancy test after 5-7 days to see if it becomes positive. According to Lab Tests Online, if you are pregnant, an early positive urine pregnancy test will be reliable 10 days after your missed menstrual period. 5
Blood hCG Level and early pregnancy test
A pregnancy blood test will be positive 2 or 3 days before a urine pregnancy test. Pregnancy blood tests check the levels of the hCG hormone and they are more accurate than urine pregnancy tests as they can show the exact levels of hCG.
Doctors also use hCG levels to determine how many weeks you are pregnant and to monitor your health during pregnancy.
A blood pregnancy test will become positive very soon after implantation. According to Dr. Melissa Conrad Stöppler on MedicineNet, positive pregnancy blood test result can show up as early as one week after conception. Because implantation happens 3-4 after conception, you might get early pregnancy blood test results that are usually positive within 3 or 4 days after implantation. 6
In very rare circumstances, you might have a “false-positive” pregnancy test result. Dr. Stöppler says that medication, tumors, or other conditions can show up as a positive pregnancy test when there is, in fact, no pregnancy.
Pregnancy Test Soon After Implantation – How Accurate Is It?
A positive pregnancy test is almost certainly correct and is usually very accurate. However, you always need to follow the instructions of the home pregnancy test correctly.
Doctors from the National Health Service say that if the pregnancy test results are positive, then you are probably pregnant. However, a negative test result is less accurate and isn’t necessarily an indicator that you’re not pregnant. Sometimes, taking the pregnancy test too soon after implantation doesn’t allow for high enough levels of hCG hormone to develop. 7
Pregnancy tests can show a positive result when the concentration of the pregnancy hormone (hCG) is high enough to be detected in a blood test or urine sample.
According to Dr. Traci Johnson on WebMD, there are 6 factors that can affect how accurate a pregnancy test is soon after implantation. Some of these are: 8
The European Journal of Epidemiology says that smoking and being overweight can also negatively affect hCG levels. This makes it harder to test for early signs of pregnancy soon after implantation. 10
However, if you are pregnant, then pregnancy test result is usually positive within 7-10 days after you have missed a period.
How to Test for Pregnancy Soon After Implantation
Most women use at-home urine pregnancy test kits because they are cheaper and quicker than making an appointment with your doctor for a pregnancy blood test. These will test positive for pregnancy when hCG levels reaches at least 25 mIU/ml.
To use a urine pregnancy test soon after implantation to check if it tests positive, this is what you should do:
What do Pregnancy Test Results Mean After Implantation?
Positive pregnancy results usually mean that you are pregnant. Most home pregnancy testing kits show the results by means of a line to indicate a positive or a negative result. Dr. Traci Johnson on WebMD says that even if the line for a positive pregnancy test result is very faint, it still means you are pregnant. 8
If your pregnancy test is positive, then it means that you should make an appointment to see your doctor. The earlier you can arrange for prenatal care, then the better health you and your baby will enjoy during pregnancy.
Negative pregnancy results may not necessarily mean that implantation hasn’t happened. You could still be pregnant because you tested too soon after implantation or you took the test the wrong way. Dr. Traci Johnson recommends retesting for a positive result in a week to check for pregnancy.
If the HPT still tests negative over 10 days after your missed period, you should speak to your doctor. A late or missed period could be a result of a hormonal imbalance as well as emotional stress, excessive weight loss or gain and problems with pelvic organs. 12
Early Signs of Pregnancy Very Soon After Implantation
Even before an hCG pregnancy test becomes positive, you may have some signs of implantation that show up before a pregnancy test confirms that you are pregnant.
Implantation spotting. Many women experience implantation spotting as one of the earliest pregnancy signs. Implantation bleeding looks like very light spotting that could be a rusty brown or light pink color. Spotting associated with implantation usually last up to 2 days.
Implantation cramping. Around the time when the fertilized egg attaches to the uterine lining you might experience mild cramping. Implantation cramping usually happens just before or just after you notice implantation spotting.
Breast tenderness. Doctors from the American Pregnancy Association say that your breasts may become sore when implantation happens. In fact, your breasts may appear swollen and tender even as early as 1 to 2 weeks after conception. 11
Other signs of implantation or early pregnancy that you might notice before a pregnancy test tests positive are frequent urination, food aversions or cravings, backaches and headaches, and mood swings.
If you notice these signs of pregnancy, and you know that you had intercourse around the time of ovulation, you should take a home pregnancy test. If the results are negative, they may become positive several days later as pregnancy hormone (hCG) increases.
Positive Pregnancy Test Then Negative?
Taking a home pregnancy test that turns positive after you use it provides you with a wonderful feeling. However, it’s not uncommon for many women to want to take a second or third test just to make sure that her eyes aren’t playing tricks on her. While there are very few false positives, sometimes it happens that a woman receives a positive result on one test and a negative result on another. Before you panic, it’s imperative that you understand there are many instances in which this could occur.
One reason you might receive a positive pregnancy test the first time and a negative the second is that you are not using the test correctly the second time. It happens. If you use a different type of test, you might forgo reading the instructions because you feel that you already know how to use a pregnancy test. However, if that test has different requirements for use, you could end up using it incorrectly and seeing a negative result. It is always in your best interest to read the instructions provided with your pregnancy test prior to using it.
You might have used a defective test. All pregnancy tests come with test lines and/or timers. For example, if you use a traditional test in which you look for a second line to appear to tell you that you’re pregnant, you have to ensure the first line appears. If it does not appear after your urine hits the absorbent tip, the test is not working correctly and will not provide you with the correct result. If you use a digital pregnancy test, make sure that there is a little timer in the screen that blinks while you wait for your results to appear. If there is not, your test could be bad.
Another reason you might not receive a positive pregnancy test the second time you test is that you did not use your first urine of the morning. If you’re very early in your pregnancy, you need to use your first morning urine. Eating and drinking throughout the day can dilute your urine and cause your test not to detect the pregnancy hormone in your urine.
Positive Pregnancy Test Now Negative No Bleeding?
The good news is that if you took a pregnancy test and it was positive before you took a secondary negative test but you are not bleeding, you are probably still pregnant. Assuming that your positive test was not the result of a test taken while you are on fertility medication or right after a miscarriage, chances of it being a false negative are very slim.
If you did take a positive pregnancy test and then a negative test later, you could have done something wrong. You could have used an expired test. You could have used a broken test. You could have used urine that was too diluted for your test to find the hCG within it.
Http://www. pregnancy-period. com/hiv-testing-in-pregnancy. html
Http://www. babymed. com/positive-pregnancy-test-when-and-how-early-after-implantation
Http://www. healthyandnaturalworld. com/how-long-after-implantation-can-i-test-for-pregnancy/
Http://www. negativepregnancytest. com/positive-pregnancy-test-then-negative/