Sugar increased during pregnancy – as a serious problem?
Pregnancy – is a wonderful event, completely change the life of every woman. Adjusting to the beat of a small heart, the mother tries to do everything to make your child feel comfortable during all nine months. Unfortunately, for many weeks, forty expectant mother has to experience not only the joy of emergency meetings with the baby, but also a lot of unpleasant sensations that accompany pregnancy. Some of the inevitable companions of pregnancy do not carry any hazard to the fetus, while others require constant medical supervision. One of the most serious complications in the waiting period is a child gestational diabetes – a condition in which increased levels of glucose in the peripheral blood.
What does the rise in blood sugar during pregnancy?
At the first summons to the antenatal clinic expectant mother receives from the direction of the doctor for tests to assess the general condition of the pregnant woman. One of the most important figures in this huge list is the determination of glucose in the b
Increase in the concentration of glucose in the blood is not as harmless as it may seem at first glance. Changes in blood sugar triggers a whole range of pathological mechanisms that lead to a significant deterioration of the pregnant woman. The processes occurring in the body of the future mother will inevitably impact on the development of the fetus, increasing the risk of having a child with signs of diabetic fetopathy.
How do you know that sugar is elevated in pregnancy?
Blood test to detect glucose woman delivers twice the turnout at the first antenatal care and at time of 22-24 weeks. This expectant mother should not limit yourself to food or something to change eating habits for three days prior to the scheduled examination. Blood is drawn from a vein in the morning on an empty stomach. Exceeding the permissible values in most cases indicates the development of gestational diabetes.
Why rising glucose levels?
Under normal circumstances, the sugar content is regulated by the hormone insulin, which is continuously produced by the pancreas. Under his influence the glucose that came along with the food, is gradually transformed into the cells of the body, performing its function there. Blood sugar level is lowered. What happens during pregnancy and why this streamlined mechanism fails?
Hormones that allow bear a child, are antagonists of insulin. Elevated blood sugar during pregnancy is linked to the fact that the pancreas simply can not cope with their work in such conditions. Pregnancy hormones activate the output of glucose in the blood, and insulin is able to bind excess sugar, not enough. As a result of developing the so-called gestational diabetes, dangerous for its unpredictable consequences.
It would seem that in this situation, any woman in an interesting position to suffer from an excess of glucose in the body. However, the increased sugar during pregnancy is not every expectant mother. What increases the risk of disease?
• heredity (diabetes in close relatives);
• the development of a similar situation in a previous pregnancy;
• polycystic ovary syndrome;
• age over 25 years.
Symptoms of gestational diabetes
In many cases, a pregnant woman does not even know that she had elevated levels of glucose in the blood. It did not feel me baby actively moves and makes itself felt quite active jerks. Risk of gestational diabetes is that the amount of sugar in the blood will gradually increase, leading to serious complications.
With increasing gestational glucose will rise, and insulin levels inevitably decline. Manifestation of diabetes is characterized by the following symptoms:
• constant feeling of thirst;
For accurate diagnosis alone complaints about the deterioration of health is not enough. The feeling of hunger and frequent urination are typical of many pregnant women with perfectly normal blood sugar levels. Expectant mother will have to pass a special examination, which allows to confirm or deny gestational diabetes.
In order to ascertain whether the sugar is elevated in pregnancy, a woman offered to donate blood the determination of glucose. The analysis shall fasting.
Interpretation of results:
• from 3.3 to 5.5 mmol / l – the norm;
• 5.5 to 7 mmol / L – impaired glucose tolerance;
• more than 7.1 momol / L – diabetes.
When glucose levels over 7.1 mmol / l of the expectant mother is sent for consultation to the endocrinologist to confirm the diagnosis and to develop treatment strategies.
Increased sugar in the urine during pregnancy also talks about the development of gestational diabetes. The most common glucose detected in the later stages, when the disease has gone too far. Sugar in the urine indicates that the kidneys are no longer cope with its function, and hence increases the risk of complications of all organs and systems of the female body.
How dangerous is gestational diabetes?
Many pregnant women do not seek professional help, hoping that postpartum glucose level will decrease by itself. They do not realize what is really dangerous pinch of sugar during pregnancy. The effects of gestational diabetes can be very sad. Women with high blood sugar increases the risk of joining preeclampsia (a condition characterized by swelling and high blood pressure in late pregnancy).In addition, it increases the likelihood of complications from kidney and urinary system. Do not forget that birth in women with diabetes often occur early.
How does diabetes affect the fetus?
Increased level of sugar in the blood of the mother affects the baby’s condition. The complex of symptoms that develop when a pregnancy is called diabetic fetopathy. When a child is born of this pathology is very large, more than 4.5 kg. But a lot of weight does not mean that the baby will be healthy. In contrast, for diabetic fetopathy characterized by stunted physical development. Due to lack of surfactant (a substance makes it easy to open at birth) in the newborn observed various respiratory disorders. Very often develop pathological jaundice, and a variety of neurological disorders.
Treatment of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
Most expectant mothers are afraid to find an increased sugar during pregnancy. What to do if you happen to such trouble? First of all, a woman should consult a specialist. The endocrinologist will evaluate the future mother and, depending on the severity of the disease prescribe the necessary treatment.
In most cases, the tactics of pregnant women with diabetes is reduced to a change in diet. Normalizing insulin levels in the blood allows you to dispense with heavy artillery in the form of hormones. At elevated sugar diet during pregnancy involves the following principles: •
Daily ration is divided between proteins, carbohydrates and fats in a ratio of 20-25%, 35-40% and 35% respectively.
• During the whole period of pregnancy there is a gradual decrease in caloric intake to 25-30 kcal per 1 kg of body weight.
• From daily use excludes any carbohydrate (especially sweets).
How to reduce fasting blood sugar level during pregnancy?
Lately, I have been receiving a lot of queries and comments from my readers. They all want to know How to reduce fasting blood sugar level during pregnancy? So here is a post on How to reduce fasting blood sugar level during pregnancy. Read on..
What is fasting sugar?
Fasting Blood Sugar is the level of sugar found in blood early in the morning, before consumption of any food. Where post prandial sugar levels depend on the food that you consume, fasting blood sugars depend on various factors.
- Over all hepatic output of glucose over night. ( The liver produces glucose to carry involuntary body process at night when we are inactive. )
- The amount of glucose produced indirectly depends on Your Evening snack and dinner (hence desserts are better avoided in the later half of the day) , Stress levels (which are usually high in pregnancy ), and your Over all blood sugar control.
So now that we know the reasons that attribute to fasting sugar, we can control the fasting blood sugar by keeping a watch on these causative factors. let us see in details about how to reduce fasting blood sugar level during pregnancy.
How to reduce fasting blood sugar level during pregnancy?
- Evening / Post Dinner Walks
- Check your evening meal’s / Dinner’s nutritional content
- Drink plenty of water
- Bed time snack
- Apple cider vinegar
Here are some tips that will help you in decreasing fasting blood sugar levels during pregnancy.
Evening / Post Dinner Walks
Waling helps great deal in controlling blood sugar levels. The timing of walking plays a specific role in lowering a blood sugar levels. For fasting blood sugars, It is advisable to walk in the evening or late nights. Walking at this time regulates insulin that works for longer and hence can control the mid night rise in blood sugars.
Walking for 20 mins in regular to slow speed is helpful in bringing down fasting blood sugar levels in pregnancy.
Check your evening meal’s / Dinner’s nutritional content
It is best to avoid simple carbs, sweet drinks, fruit juices, sugar, refined carbs like maida, bread, pasta in the later part of the day. Eating healthy carbs for dinner is a must. You can include
You can add Green leafy vegetables like spinach, methi or bottle gourd, ridge gourd, bhindi etc to go with it. add proteins in the form of chicken, fish, eggs, Mung dals, paneer or Curd (if it suits you). You can check a detailed diet plan – Indian diet plan for gestational diabetes.
Drink plenty of water
Hydration is very important when it comes to diabetes and specially during gestational diabetes. pregnant women have very concentrated urine, and hence the urine is dark yellow in colour. Diluted urine decreases the risk on vaginal infections during pregnancy. It is very important that i mention to you that dehydration can also trigger contractions and cause pre term labour.
Bed time snack
Here are some snacks that can be consumed as a healthy bed time snack ;
A bed time snack is very very important in all category of diabetics. It not only decreases your fasting blood sugar level but also decreases the risk of developing hypoglycemia at night. Hypoglycemia can be fatal.
Apple cider vinegar
This is practically tried and tested. a lot of my clients with gestational diabetes have benefited from drinking 1-2 tsp of apple cider vinegar at bed time. But i must warn you, take it for 2-4 days and check if it suits your stomach. if at all you feel acidity at night please discontinue this.
Hope you have found the answer to how to reduce fasting blood sugar level during pregnancy? here are some more articles that could be of help to you.
Now that i have mentioned all tips about how to reduce fasting blood sugar level during pregnancy. I hope these tips help you. Do mention your query in t he comments so that we can help you further.
Payal is a Registered Dietician; a Professional Blogger, and a human who believes in healthy living. Here at Dietburrp, you will find her talking about health, weight loss, fitness, parenting, healthy cooking and how to keep yourself motivated to be healthy.
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Diabetes-Things to takecare Before, After & During Pregnancy
If you are diabetic whether type 1 or type 2 and would like to get pregnant, then you will have to be much more careful for you and your baby’s health. Because if you conceived while you blood sugar is high then the chances becomes high of miscarriage or any abnormality in the fetus. For healthy pregnancy and for a healthy baby you will have to adopt a healthy life style and maintain your blood sugar levels.
Risk for the Mother:Worsening of diabetic may cause of eye problems, kidney problems, Infections of the urinary bladder and vaginal area, Preeclampsia (high blood pressure usually with protein in the urine). Diabetic pregnant woman may also face difficulty in delivery or cesarean section.
Risk for the baby: Diabetic mothers are more likely to have a miscarriage or even experience the loss of a baby at birth. Premature delivery and large baby size (Macrosomia) are also the major risks if you have high blood glucose levels during pregnancy. Babies born to diabetic mother are also more likely to develop diabetes in later life. If the mother’s blood sugar goes very up and down during pregnancy then there are very high chances to happen of any birth defect like heart defects, kidney problems and brain defects in the baby. Baby can have low blood glucose at birth (hypoglycemia), prolonged jaundice (yellowing of the skin), and respiratory distress syndrome (difficulty breathing).
PLanning for Pregnancy: To take control on blood sugar levels before pregnancy is as much important as during pregnancy. In the first trimester of pregnancy when the baby organs formed, if the mother’s blood sugar is continuously fluctuating then it increases the risk of birth defects and also miscarriage. So it becomes very important to have control on your blood sugar levels in first 4 weeks even when you may not know about your pregnancy. This makes very important to get blood glucose levels under control before getting pregnant. Because these early weeks are so important to your baby, you need to plan your pregnancy. Work to bring your diabetes under control before getting pregnant. According to the specialist it is a good idea to be in good blood glucose control three to six months before you plan to get pregnant. Before being pregnant you should target to maintain your blood sugar level between 60 to 119mg/dl at fasting(before meal) and between 100 to 149mh/dl at 1 hour after meal. Your doctor might want you to reach a specific hemoglobin A1C level (a reflection of your blood sugar level for the past two to three months) before pregnancy. You should also quit smoking because smoking is especially harmful for people with diabetes. it can increase diabetes related health problems. Take folic acid as suggested by the doctor to decrease the chances of early miscarriage.
Baby Birth: During labor blood sugar control is equally very important. Labor time is very stressful for both mother and baby. If you are taking insulin during pregnancy then may be insulin would be given to you by the injection. This insulin requirement may sudden drop immediately after giving birth.
After Delivery: You can give your baby a healthy start by breastfeeding. Breastfeeding provides the best nutrition and helps your baby stay healthy. Breast milk has the potential to control your baby’s sugar levels. And breastfeeding is also good to control mother’s blood sugar levels. Follow your doctor; he may advice you to monitor your blood sugar more often than usual, because at this time you are at risk of low blood sugar also.
Blood Sugar Levels During Pregnancy
Blood glucose control is one of the most important factors during pregnancy. Tight blood glucose control, helps to ensure the best chance of a successful pregnancy.
Diabetes control is important for people who have diabetes going into their pregnancy as well as people who develop diabetes during their pregnancy (gestational diabetes).
What is gestational diabetes?
It has been reported that on average 2% to 4% of women develop temporary diabetes also known as gestational diabetes.
This happens because they are unable to produce an increased amount of insulin to overcome the resistance levels.
In gestational diabetes there is not normally any show of external symptoms normally recognised as characteristic of the disease for example excessive thirst, tiredness and increased urination.
Blood sugar control during pregnancy
Good blood glucose control reduces the risks of complications developing for the mother and baby.
The Target HbA1c for mothers before and during pregnancy is 6.1% (or 43 mmol/mol). 
People with diabetes before their pregnancy will be advised to keep excellent control of their blood sugar before and throughout the pregnancy.
The first eight weeks of the pregnancy are a critical period and so it is highly recommended that strong control is achieved prior to becoming pregnant wherever possible.
Mothers who develop gestational diabetes will be treated initially with diet and exercise but may be put onto oral hypoglycaemics (tablets) or insulin injections if blood sugar levels remain high.
To help you to meet the challenging blood glucose targets, you will be expected to test your blood glucose before each meal and 1 hour after eating.
People taking insulin for their diabetes will also need to test before bed each night.
You will have blood tests performed at various intervals during your pregnancy to check your diabetes is under good control.
Diabetes can be present before pregnancy or may develop during pregnancy itself. If you develop diabetes during pregnancy, in most cases this will be a specific type of diabetes known as gestational diabetes.
Blood sugar levels are important for all mothers to be with diabetes –as well controlled blood glucose levels can significantly increase the likelihood of having a healthy baby. The NHS advises the target HbA1c for mothers before and during pregnancy is 43 mmol/mol (or 6.1%).
If you have diabetes prior to your pregnancy, the NHS advises achieving the target HbA1c before conceiving.
The target HbA1c target may require dedication to reach, but its important that you strive to achieve it. You might find that, Regular blood glucose testing, including before each meal and 1 hour after will help you to keep your blood glucose levels under control.
If blood glucose levels are higher than recommended, you may need to change your medication regime to help lower your sugar levels Your health team will provide you with advice for managing your blood glucose levels throughout your pregnancy.
Sometimes, The emphasis on achieving tight blood glucose control may bring on hypoglycemia, particularly amongst those using insulin. Your health team should ensure you know how best to spot and treat hypoglycemia.
You should expect to receive a high standard of care from your health team throughout your pregnancy and should have the opportunity to ask any questions you may have about achieving your health targets.
How does diabetes affect the baby?
There have been reports that diabetes during pregnancy brings increased chances of having a bigger babies and birth defects.
Infant mortality and birth defects
There is a slight increase in the risk of infant mortality or birth defects in baby’s of mother with diabetes than without, however preconception care can reduce this risk by ensuring the mother is as healthy as possible before and through out pregnancy.
In addition to this if a woman has diabetes before pregnancy, diabetes related complications can worsen; this includes things like hypertension, kidney disease, nerve damage and retinopathy which is a form of diabetic eye disease.
The baby of a woman with diabetes often produces excess insulin in response to high blood glucose levels within the body of the mother.
In type 1 diabetes no significant extra insulin will be produced by your body so you may see your insulin requirements increased. Your health team should be able to advise with the best way to manage your diabetes.
At birth the baby’s blood glucose levels may be hypoglycemic; the blood glucose level is reduced as a result of the removal of the maternal glucose source.
This is detected by a heel stick blood test and can be restored to a normal level with either oral or intravenous glucose. In addition to this a further glucose tolerance test should be done at the six-week postnatal check in order to establish whether any further treatment needs to be considered.
When a pregnant woman has an abnormally high level of blood glucose, the baby will naturally store excess glucose as body fat. For this reason, the baby will be larger than average upon reaching the gestation date.
This is a condition known as foetal macrosomia.
If a woman has gestational diabetes, there have been reports that 50% of these women will go on to develop type 2 diabetes within 10 to 15 years.
Risk factors for developing diabetes during pregnancy
There is an increased risk of diabetes during pregnancy if:
- The woman is overweight
- The woman is a smoker or around smokers more than average
- The woman is older (over 30)
- There is a family history of diabetes
- The woman is from an ethnic minority
- There is previous history of the birth of a large baby (more than 4.5 kg or 10lbs)
There is a routine antenatal test used to measure glucose levels in urine; however it has been noted it is relatively unreliable for diagnosing diabetes.
Therefore blood sugar levels are checked between 26 and 30 weeks of gestation. This is done of two separate occasions using one of two tests, either the fasting glucose test or the random glucose test. In addition to this if there are any abnormal results of these tests or there is a family history of diabetes, or a woman is regarded as obese she will be offered a glucose tolerance test.
Often with gestational diabetes, the woman is advised to take a number of steps to change their diet and exercise habits to ensure the best possible pregnancy.
It is reportedly advisable to increase participation in low-impact activities such as walking, swimming, yoga and pilates. In addition to this it is advisable to eat regular meals watching the amount of fat being eaten, remembering it is controlling the amount of fat not cutting it out of the diet completely.
Also reducing the amount of salt in the diet and ensuring that plenty of fruit and vegetables are included in the diet.
Http://www. dietburrp. com/how-to-reduce-fasting-blood-sugar-level-during-pregnancy/
Http://www. menmomhealth. com/how-to-prepare-yourself-for-diabetes-during-before-after-pregnancy/
Http://www. diabetes. co. uk/diabetes_care/blood-sugar-levels-during-pregnancy. html